The progress made in fiber production industry allowed meet the various requirements that have emerged and continue to emerge to meet the market needs.
The growing demand for new materials to meet new needs, led the textile industry to evolve towards new features, imposed on materials.
The functionalization of properties is defined as all points which go beyond the aesthetic decoration, including so-called “smart properties”, are properties that imposed to the material so that it reacts to an external stimulus, for example the temperature.
Thus, the functional fibers are fibers that perform a specific function may be defined as being unique, in that each is able to respond in a given situation, i.e., any fiber that presents an innovative feature, unusual or conventional.
This functionalization can be obtained by the intrinsic characteristics of the base polymer itself, the addition of specific compounds during the extrusion process or chemical finishing of the fibers after extrusion or harvesting.
Antimicrobial fibers, thermoregulatory resistant to high temperatures, moisture management, among others, are examples of functional fibers.