The multicomponent fibers are fibers that combine at least two polymers having properties and/or different chemical compositions. The polymers are extruded together, and its relative position along the fiber length depends on factors like the geometry of orifícos the spinneret and the intrinsic properties of the polymer itself, including viscosity and molecular weight.
Can be obtained multicomponent fibers having the desired properties, by making a right combination of polymers, the conditions of manufacture and additives added. The multicomponent fiber production technologies can be used to produce fibers with a mixture of filaments, varying the color, the linear mass, the nature of the polymer, among others.
One of the most used multicomponent fibers comprises polyethylene and polypropylene (polymers with different melting points) and used in the production of nonwovens using polyethylene fiber as a binder it has lower melting point. The resulting material is lightweight, strong, soft and comfortable, dries quickly, and has high resistance to abrasion and dirt.
It is expected that in the future the possibility of combining the basic properties of the polymers, the multicomponent fibers are assumed as engineering materials in fields as diverse as medicine, architecture, agriculture, and even fashion.