Nanosciences and nanotechnology led to the nanofibers, and is currently the main focus of research, development and innovation, where investments have been significant.
Nanofibers are usually produced by electrostatic spinning.
The basic polymers normally used for forming nanofibers are polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polybenzimidazole (PBI), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyamide (PA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyester (PS), among others.
Given the nanometer scale in which the fibers are designed, have special properties that make them very attractive for numerous applications such as:
– A high specific surface area (area / unit mass);
– High aspect ratio (length / diameter);
– Low number of defects;
– Biomimetic potential.
These properties lead to the potential application of nanofibers in fields as diverse as high-performance filters, fibrous absorbent composite materials reinforced by fibers, fiber materials for dressings, grafts created in vivo to implant materials for controlled drug delivery, nano devices and microelectronics , electromagnetic shielding, photovoltaic devices, high-performance electrodes, and an array of sensors based on nanofibres.